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Can An Astrophysicist Change The Way We Watch Sports

The vast majority of our collective sports-viewing is on television. Around 21 million people watch an average Sunday Night Football game on TV, for example — some 300 times more than the 70,000 who are able to see it in person. Our sports experience is, to a first approximation, a television experience. I’ve seen Tom Brady play dozens of times, even though I’ve never seen Tom Brady play.And television has been enhancing — or, at the very least, altering — how we watch sports ever since TV was invented. NBC coverage of the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, the first sporting event ever televised, used slow motion footage to “show the form, the poetry of motion” of a pole vaulter.It seems a natural fit. Cameras and technology can do many things our eyes can’t. If we can see closeups of Pluto, surely we deserve a crystal-clear view of Odell Beckham Jr.’s catch. “Keep your eye on the ball” is the child’s earliest and most universal sports lesson. And nowadays we can see just about every little thing that happens to the ball. Or puck.Nearly 20 years ago, on Jan. 20, 1996, at the NHL All-Star Game, FoxTrax made its debut. FoxTrax is better known as a glowing hockey puck whizzing around the screen. Matt Ginsberg’s technology may be able to tell us mortals what the universe already knows — it may let the universe whisper in our ear. We may not have to wait for a resolution. We may, for example, have been able to hear Cinderella’s death knell just a little bit sooner. Rather than “keep your eye on the ball,” it’s now “keep your eye on where the ball will be.”Sportvision — the company behind football’s 1st & Ten, baseball’s PITCHf/x, sailing’s LiveLine and other tech — has undertaken some real-time projections of a different sort. It has tech that tells TV viewers when one car is expected to pass another in NASCAR, for example. But Hank Adams, Sportvision’s CEO, told me he wasn’t aware of any other technology like Ginsberg’s. It seemed reasonable. “I wouldn’t be at all surprised if he could predict, with some accuracy, whether a ball was going to go in or not,” Adams said.Adams also mused on the implications of Ginsberg’s technology. Its use as a TV storytelling tool may be limited, he said, given the mere second or two that it allows us to see into the future. He was also skeptical that the NBA would allow any in-game use by teams. It could be a valuable coaching tool, he thought. Or in training. Perhaps in a golf telecast. Maybe for players in a volleyball game. Neither of us was really sure. Watch FiveThirtyEight’s Oliver Roeder and Jody Avirgan talk about Ginsberg’s invention. The development of this tech, which looks quaint in retrospect, was a major undertaking. In 1994, an executive vice president at News Corp. promised to develop glow puck technology within two years, for $2 million, according to a 2003 article in IEEE Spectrum. He scooped up a team of 10 with military engineering experience — in radar, underwater sensors and radio-positioning systems — and sought outside help from other defense engineers. It was all hands on deck to track a hockey puck.But the system was discontinued after three years. FoxTrax’s main problem was probably aesthetics. It was distracting, and the puck’s “tail” looked better suited to a comic book than a hockey game. Hockey fans protested, the broadcast rights changed networks, and the phenomenon died.But its developers were undeterred. They turned their attention to a problem that sounds easier, but was much trickier. A couple years later — on Sept. 27, 1998 — the middling Cincinnati Bengals and Baltimore Ravens met in Baltimore. At 8:20 p.m. local time, a technology called 1st & Ten debuted. It’s better known as the yellow first-down line. The yellow line isn’t official — as anyone who’s ever watched a football game on TV could tell you — but the yellow line is beloved. I had 13 good football-watching years under my belt before its introduction, but I can’t remember watching a single game without it. The yellow line is ubiquitous. The yellow line won an Emmy. The yellow line is here to stay. Truth No. 1: Most of us watch sports to see the unexpected. Truth No. 2: Plenty of us want to predict the future.Somewhere, where those two contradictory truths meet, there has been a movement afoot. For decades now, sports-crazed statheads — the sabermetricians and forecasters and moneyballers bent on winning their fantasy leagues, assembling an actual professional team or simply understanding the sports world — have been honing their techniques, trying to find the signal hiding in the noise. In baseball alone, an alphabet soup of player projection systems have been born — ZiPS, CAIRO, CHONE. We just introduced CARMELO to basketball. The movement is trying, in other words, to predict the unexpected.There are some in the movement who want to project the future, quite literally, on the screens in front of our eyes. Somewhere in the foothills of Oregon’s Cascade Mountains, an astrophysicist and his son are working, with the backing of an outspoken billionaire, to bring us just such a glimpse. Armed only with a camera, a laptop and their custom code, they’re working on a system that calls a 3-pointer a swish or a brick, a volleyball serve in or out, a soccer shot over the bar or in the goal, all before the ball completes its flight. If the system works — and that’s a big “if” — it would be equivalent to a minor superpower: flash precognition. The sports fan would become, if only for a second or two, a superhero.And the system is almost done. This, right here, could be the future of sports: Matt Ginsberg is tall and fit with sharp features and, aside from his closely cut grey hair, resembles a 40-year-old rock climber more closely than the 60-year-old technologist and businessman that he is. He’s affable but deeply serious. I first met him in Stamford, Connecticut, in March, at the American Crossword Puzzle Tournament, where he was operating Dr. Fill, his artificial intelligence crossword puzzle solver. In the crossword community, he’s both loved and hated — he’s the guy who might be a little too clever for his own good who’s trying to ruin all the fun with his fancy computer program.His would-be revolution in sports technology grew out of his role as unofficial statistical analyst for the University of Oregon’s women’s volleyball team. He has, among other things, imported basketball’s adjusted plus-minus system to volleyball, and convinced the team’s coach that the way timeouts were traditionally used was inefficient. Last November, while Ginsberg was watching a game, a player hit a serve that, from Ginsberg’s bleacher seat, looked like it was sure to go out. The returning players should’ve simply let the ball go out but they didn’t. Ginsberg was annoyed. “I can fix this. We can have a computer help,” he told me. “I did not realize how hard it would be.”While the development of FoxTrax and 1st & Ten resembled military contracts, Matt Ginsberg’s purported crystal ball was developed in a son-and-pop shop in Eugene, Oregon. Navarre Ginsberg is a 21-year-old programmer and Matt Ginsberg’s son. When I reached Navarre Ginsberg by phone in early October, his dad told me not to take up too much of his time — he had to get the camera working. It was the younger Ginsberg who first suggested to his dad that this technology could be taken far beyond just volleyball. Matt is in charge of the big picture; Navarre is responsible for handling coding issues as they arise, and making sure the damn thing works.The result looks like this. Here’s a Rajon Rondo shot that misses right — as correctly called by the computer: Technologies like these told us more about what we were looking at by putting a visual layer between us and a game on our TV. FoxTrax told us where the puck was at all times. 1st & Ten tells us where a team is trying to go. But they were just building blocks. Data was the next frontier.A torrent of new innovations followed in their wake. The NFL and Zebra Technologies have strapped radio-frequency identification chips onto players this season. The camera-tracking system SportVU has been hailed as the future of the NBA by our friends at Grantland. ProTracer technology has given golf fans something to stare at other than the warm plasma-screen glow of the summer sky. Hawk-Eye technology in tennis powers replay challenges and can track a ball to within mere millimeters. LiveLine, another Emmy winner, does its best to make sailing interesting to watch. And one word — in press releases, company websites and media coverage of these technologies — appears over and over again: “revolutionary.” Layering data on top of a sports broadcast is the frontier.But, as with most revolutions, there is a staunch establishment that leans against the shifting winds. In April, Vice published a philippic against K-Zone, the imaginary strike zone projected on the screen during baseball games. “The calculus at the root of this experiment seems to be that we prefer perfect information to beauty, precision to custom,” Robert O’Connell wrote. And some even rebel against television itself. Each season, the supremacy of radio-baseball to TV-baseball is vocally declaimed by acolytes. “Listening to a game on the radio, while driving along through the night hits some sort of cosmic level of perfection, especially if you can find it on an AM station, with a slight whine from some other signal, scratchy static calling the game in from across time and space,” Todd VanDerWerff, Vox’s culture editor, wrote in his newsletter earlier this month. “The fall of baseball could certainly be tied to the slow decline of radio as well,” he added.The natural-human-beauty-vs.-cold-mechanical-statistics sports debate has been thoroughly litigated, including on FiveThirtyEight. The jury is hopelessly hung. Do you want a dressed-up broadcast? Do you want a television screen augmented with pitch counts and wind speeds and strike zones and Bryce Harper’s velocity running to first? Or do you simply want to tune your dial to AM 720 for the crack of the bat and the passionate, pained voice of Ron Santo, may he rest in peace?I’d guess the split is largely generational. As the aesthetics of real televised sports approach those of sports video games, with their elaborate heads-up displays and options, the younger set may feel more at ease. But there’s more than just aesthetics that sports share with video games. The outcomes of events in both are pre-known, if you know where to look. When you kick a field goal in Madden 16, for example, the path of the ball is already written. Sure, you’ll see the ball fly through the air for a few seconds, and perhaps drift slowly toward the right upright, causing you to clench. But the game and your Xbox already “know” if it’s good or wide right — the kick’s power and distance, the wind, etc. have already been thrown into whatever algorithm and the result already spat out. The anticipation is just an illusion. But isn’t that the same in real life? When Butler’s Gordon Hayward launched the shot that would’ve beaten Duke in the 2010 NCAA final, it hangs in the air for-seemingly-ever — in fact it’s just shy of two seconds — and we don’t know whether it will go in or out. (See Truth No. 1, above.) But the universe “knows.” Physics “knows.” Again, the idea is simple. Almost comically so, judging by illustrations in the patent application.The execution, on the other hand, is not simple. Matt Ginsberg’s training is in astrophysics. He got his Ph.D. from Oxford when he was 24 years old. His doctoral advisor there was the famed mathematical physicist Roger Penrose, and he recalls rubbing elbows with the academic rock stars Stephen Hawking and the late Richard Feynman. He created an artificial intelligence crossword puzzle solver called Dr. Fill and a computer bridge world champion called GIB.Unsurprisingly, there’s pretty heavy math involved to make this real-time sports predictor work. For one element of the system’s calculations, Ginsberg sent me a pdf with eight dense pages of physics diagrams and systems of equations and notes on derivations. It uses something called the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. It requires Jacobians and the taking of partial derivatives and the solving of quartics, and code efficient enough to calculate it all up to the split second. If predicting the future were easy, I suppose everybody would do it. (See Truth No. 2, above.)One thing this project can’t predict, however, is its own future. Its uses are, so far, largely speculative, and cashing in on a minor superpower might not be easy. Even gamblers who bet during play would struggle to make much money from a half-second heads-up that a shot is going in. But Ginsberg’s system would find a natural place in the long line of sports technologies that have been used for a singular end — TV. The footage is from a Dallas Mavericks game against the San Antonio Spurs in March. What you see was calculated in real time, but for demonstration purposes the shot itself is slowed down. A computer tracked the ball’s position as well as its projected position, and the three red bars underneath the action indicate the system’s confidence that the ball would miss left, go in, or miss right, respectively. In this clip, it was a Monta Ellis jumper that went in, just as the tech predicted.“Many decisions in sports relate to the trajectory of a ball or similar object, such as a puck or shuttlecock,” reads the patent application for this technology filed in late August. There are three names on the patent application: Matthew L. Ginsberg, Navarre S. Ginsberg and Mavericks owner Mark Cuban. The Ginsbergs have ambitions to spread their technology far and high, including to the NBA and its billionaire owners, including Cuban.When Matt Ginsberg first mentioned this project to me, back in March, he began the conversation like this: “I’m going to revolutionize sports.”His idea is simple: Find a ball with a camera and have it tell a computer what’s up with the ball (or shuttlecock or javelin or frisbee or whatever). Then have the computer calculate, in real time, where the ball’s going. Then turn that into some useful piece of information, knowing what sport we’re watching and the dimensions of that sport’s infrastructure — lines on the ground, baskets in the air, and so on. Have the computer tell you, maybe along with some measurement of its certainty, “that basketball will go in the basket” or “that volleyball will land outside the lines.”Then do something interesting with that fact. Have a red light go off to signal an out-of-bounds serve to the returning team. Have a soccer goalie’s smartwatch buzz if a shot is going to clear the bar, telling her she needn’t parry it and concede a corner kick. Put it on the TV screen for the folks at home. The Ginsbergs are aware of their system’s imperfections, but they share an enthusiasm for what it can become. And they want to get it out into the world, perhaps as soon as this NBA season.“If we haven’t figured out why that’s valuable to a sport yet, we just haven’t thought hard enough yet,” Navarre Ginsberg said.Looking for investors, and an eventual outlet for his project, Matt Ginsberg approached Mark Cuban, the billionaire owner of the Mavericks, in January. The idea had applications beyond volleyball, Ginsberg had realized. Cuban was hesitant, Ginsberg said, until Ginsberg proposed a deal: Give me $50,000, he said, and I’ll develop it, and the Mavericks can use it in one game.“$50,000 to win an NBA game of your choice is incredibly cheap,” Ginsberg recalled telling Cuban. “And you don’t care about the 50 grand but I do. And I’ll also give you a right of first refusal across the NBA.” Cuban wanted two years, and Ginsberg could keep the right of first refusal. Ginsberg agreed. A lawyer came in to iron out the finer points of the deal. The lawyer was suspicious. What the hell were the Mavs even buying? It could be unicorns.Cuban described his involvement in the project to me as “active” — providing tech and design recommendations. But Ginsberg is the brains behind the coding, he said in an email last week. The most promising use of the project, in Cuban’s view? “Real-time predictions on court that can be relayed to the sidelines.” He wouldn’t comment on how the Mavericks intend to use it, if at all.When I asked Cuban how he thought the NBA would respond, he deflected a bit: “It will have amazing real-time applications in the future — things like detecting whether or not a shot was goaltended, in real time, and relaying that information to officials or displaying it on the backboard.”“If we can make basketball more fun to watch on TV, how much is that worth? I am completely clueless.”Ginsberg’s views on the technology’s uses have been evolving dramatically since we first talked in March, but they’ve always been broad. Some uses seem doable; some no doubt pie-in-the-sky. Goaltending, as Cuban suggested, is one humble but useful application. The technology could ensure that goaltending is always called correctly — it analyzes a ball’s arc, so finding the apex of a given ball’s trajectory to check for goaltending would be easy pickings. Another use is volleyball serves. A system like this is legal in NCAA volleyball — or at least it’s not illegal. Yet. (The Ginsbergs are unabashed Oregon Duck homers. “I’m excited about helping my team,” the elder said.) Another is for soccer goalies. The tech could prevent them from ceding unnecessary corner kicks. Another is tennis. Tennis players could train with the technology, and learn in real time what types of passing shots they should let go at the net and which they should go all out to try to volley.But the killer app, in many of our conversations, has been basketball tactics. Imagine, Ginsberg would describe, if the home team’s players knew when their opponents’ shots were going to go in. They’d be signaled — a flashing light, maybe — and most of them could immediately race down to their offensive end, knowing they needn’t play any more defense on that play. A huge advantage; a sea change in basketball strategy.Now, whether that’s practical or would be allowed by the NBA seems questionable, at best. And Ginsberg has backed off this idea somewhat. At the very least, he doesn’t want this tactic available to just one team.“I don’t want to have every basketball fan who doesn’t live in Dallas hating me,” he said. “That would not make my life better.”So what about TV?“There are going to be media applications that I can’t predict, because I’m not a media guy,” he said. “The other thing that’s really become apparent to me, as we’ve gotten closer here, is that I don’t know what I’m doing. In the sense that there’s huge economic value to this. If we can make basketball more fun to watch on TV, how much is that worth to NBC? And I am completely clueless” — so clueless he didn’t realize the NBA hasn’t aired on NBC since 2002. But the system’s not perfect — not yet. It occasionally doesn’t even recognize a shot is happening, or it thinks a pass is a shot, or it simply makes the wrong call after identifying a shot. Here, it thinks a long pass is a long shot: This technology’s future may become a lot clearer very soon. Ginsberg has been taking meetings over the phone. This month, he talked with an NBA executive vice president to discuss what impact this technology should have on the game. And he talked with Marc Lasry, the billionaire hedge-fund manager and co-owner of the Milwaukee Bucks, who Ginsberg thinks can help advise him on the economics.But here’s the thing about predicting the future: You’d better be right. In the 13-minute video Ginsberg sent me, the computer was right on 23 of its 30 calls — about ​​77 percent accuracy. It also didn’t recognize a shot, or thought a pass was a shot, on 10 occasions. Even just miscalling a few shots in a game could doom a project like this. If this tech is ever integral to the game — for a broadcaster or a pro team — it’ll be a fine line between the computer as Oracle of Delphi and the computer as useless hunk of junk.The Ginsbergs know this, and have been so busy hammering away at the last pesky nails sticking out of their project that they haven’t even named the thing yet. The patent application calls it Real-Time Sports Advisory System Using Ball Trajectory Prediction — and RTSASUBTP doesn’t exactly roll off the tongue. My suggestion: The tRuth. The technological Babe Ruth. He called his shot, after all. read more

10 people die in fire at Flamengo training centre in Brazil

first_imgA fire in a dormitory at the youth team training centre of Flamengo FC in Brazil has left 10 people dead.The fire occurred at Ninho do Urubu, which is a training ground of Flamengo’s in Rio de Janeiro and accommodates teenage players.The facility had only been opened two months ago after undergoing an expansion before the fire broke out earlier today.10 people have died as a result of the incident with three teenagers understood to be in a serious condition in the hospital.“The kids from the Flamengo youth team were sleeping there at the time,” Firefighter Douglas Henaut told Globo News.Local media reports that six of the victims were just young players with the other four being employees at Ninho de Urubu.Brazilian outlet G1 has named the first fatalities as Christian Esmerio, who played as a goalkeeper, and Arthur Vinicius, who was only 14 years old.Francisco Diogo Bento Alves and Jonathan Cruz Ventura, both 15, and Cauan Emanuel Gomes Nunes, 14, have been named as the three teenage boys in hospital.The fire took over two hours to get under control after it first broke out at 5:10 AM (8:10 AM CET).Currently, there has been no word yet on how fire came about in the first place.Neymar, BrazilNeymar can win the Ballon d’Or, says Ander Herrera Andrew Smyth – September 13, 2019 An “excited” Ander Herrera believes new Paris Saint-Germain team-mate Neymar is a contender for the Ballon d’Or alongside Kylian Mbappe.“Flamengo is in mourning,” wrote a message on Flamengo’s Twitter.Real Madrid forward Vinicius Junior, who came through the youth ranks at Flamengo and left the club for Spain last summer in a €46m deal, also sent his condolences.“What sad news! Praying for everyone! Strength, strength, strength,” Vinicius wrote on Twitter.Flamengo legend Zico posted on Instagram: “What a tragedy this is with the Flamengo base. What a shock to receive this news here on the other side of the world.“That it was a fatality. May God comfort the relatives who lost their children, grandchildren, brothers, nephews, relatives.“Boys who dreamed of a future in their lives and many, no doubt, in helping their families. Let everything be sorted out, for such tragedy can not be left blank. Lives are gone. May the Black-Red Nation have the strength and faith to overcome this moment.”Ten dead following blaze at #Flamengo football academy in #Rio#Brazil pic.twitter.com/Wg3SJ0YyZY— Ruptly (@Ruptly) February 8, 2019last_img read more

Bidding Extended

first_img Education Minister touts new ICT platform for Public Schools Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Recommended for you Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppProvidenciales, 28 Oct 2014 – Could it be… no construction company in the Turks and Caicos wants to build phase one of the new school for our teenagers. Education Minister, Deputy Premier, Akierra Missick said it is a shame that the tender closed last week with no interest expressed; the date is now extended. The big issue is that this could cause a further delay for the school’s construction; which would mean no new school in time for September. Media learned that an extra $1.6 million has been budgeted for the construction of the institution to be located in Long Bay Hills. This is the seventh time, explained the Minister, that an MOE project has not attracted bids. Ministry of Education introduces pilot program Related Items:akierra missick, bidding, construction companies, long bay hills, school construction Education Minister tours schools this weeklast_img read more

Deputy Governor Extends Best Wishes To Miss HJ Contestants

first_img Related Items: Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppProvidenciales, TCI, November 2, 2016 – Deputy Governor Her Excellency Anya Williams on Tuesday, November 1st, 2016 met with the contestants of the 2016 Miss Helena Jones Robinson High School.  The pageant which is in its 3rd year, will take place on Saturday November 5th, 2016 and was launched as a part of the schools calendar of events.  The theme of this year’s pageant is “Our Heritage” and there are 8 contestants from Forms 3-5.While addressing the group, the Deputy Governor reminded:  “The road to success is paved with many obstacles, but the key is to remain determined and to persevere.  As young ladies you are reminded to always carry yourself in such a manner that exudes poise and grace.  Your high school and college years will later become a part of your legacy as such it is important that maximize every opportunity that is presented to you.”“The purpose of your participation in this pageant is not to win a title or a trophy, but to have an opportunity to publicly display yourselves and your schools in a positive manner.  I would hope that this pageant will help to motivate and to build confidence in your public speaking and leadership amongst other areas.”“I commended the principal and staff of the school on ensuring the continuation of this event and am happy to have assisted in providing sponsorship for this years’ trophies and awards.  I encourage both students and members of the public to give their full support and wish the contestants and school much success.”In closing she added; “I would someday as well like to see a Mr. H.J. title being added to the slate of events as well.”last_img read more

Nightly Road Closures On The Seward Highway Starting Monday

first_imgExpected to occur on Monday, April 22, and Tuesday, April 23, the Seward Highway will be closed nightly at MP 81.8 between 9:00pm and 3:00am. Facebook0TwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享The Department of Transportation will be working on the Seward Highway between MP 84 and 86. The road will be completely closed for overnight construction. Construction crews are working at MP 89 (Virgin Creek) and 84.1 (Peterson Creek) from 7:30am to 5:30pm, 7 days a week. Drivers should be aware of temporary detours with reduced speeds of 35 MPH. The road will be completely closed during these times, with no alternate or detour routes available. Plan your trip accordingly. Expected to occur on Monday, April 15, Tuesday, April 16, and Wednesday, April 17, the Seward Highway will be closed nightly between MP 84 and 86 between 9:00pm and 3:00am.last_img read more

MySpace reportedly loses 50 million songs uploaded over 12 years

first_img Now playing: Watch this: 5:30 Internet Services Music MySpace may have lost 12 years of music in a “server migration project.” Lionel Bonaventure / AFP/Getty Images MySpace may have lost your digital memories in a server migration.”As a result of a server migration project, any photos, videos, and audio files you uploaded more than three years ago may no longer be available on or from Myspace,” it said in a note at the top of the site.”We apologize for the inconvenience. If you would like more information, please contact our Data Protection Officer at DPO@myspace.com.” Tags 5center_img Comments Share your voice Andy Baio, one of the people behind Kickstarter, tweeted that it could mean millions of songs uploaded between the site’s Aug. 1, 2003 launch and 2015 are gone for good.”Myspace accidentally lost all the music uploaded from its first 12 years in a server migration, losing over 50 million songs from 14 million artists,” he wrote Sunday.”I’m deeply skeptical this was an accident. Flagrant incompetence may be bad PR, but it still sounds better than ‘we can’t be bothered with the effort and cost of migrating and hosting 50 million old MP3s,’ ” Baio noted.MySpace didn’t immediately respond to a request for further comment.It might seem like a dim and distant memory now, but MySpace was an essential springboard for musicians like Arctic Monkeys in 2005 and the most popular site in the US in 2006. It was got a makeover back in 2013, when it was refurbished and rebranded as a cool place to share music and video.First published at 5:07 a.m. PT.Updated at 9:44 a.m. PT: Adds background detail. MySpace is still alive but it’s nothing like it was 15…last_img read more

Three Years After Launch Has Upskill Houston Helped Strengthen The Workforce

first_img X 00:00 /03:27 To embed this piece of audio in your site, please use this code: Share Listen Florian MartinPeter Beard, senior vice president of regional workforce development at the GHP, says UpSkill Houston has helped boost enrollment in middle skill training courses.Three years ago, the Greater Houston Partnership launched UpSkill Houston, a workforce development initiative aimed at increasing the number of middle-skilled workers.So what has the program achieved at this point?To find out, we sat down with Peter Beard, senior vice president of regional workforce development at the GHP.To listen to the interview, click on the play button above.last_img read more

New magnetoresistance effect leads to fourstate memory device

first_img The researchers, Can Onur Avci et al., at MIT and ETH Zürich, have published a paper on the new memory concept in a recent issue of Applied Physics Letters.”With some device and structural optimization, the bit density of existing random access memory devices may be increased by several factors, with the possibility of all-electrical operation,” Avci told Phys.org.Magnetoresistance effects date back to around 1850, when Lord Kelvin demonstrated that applying a magnetic field to a metal object increases the object’s electric resistance in one direction and decreases it in the perpendicular direction. Since then, several other types of magnetoresistance have been discovered. Most notably, Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg won the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of giant magnetoresistance, which is used to make magnetic field sensors that are found in many of the hard disk drives in today’s computers.In 2015, scientists discovered the newest magnetoresistance effect, called unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance. This effect differs from other kinds of magnetoresistance in that the change in resistance depends on the direction of either the magnetization or the electric current. As the scientists explain, this direction-dependent effect occurs because the spin-polarized electrons created by the spin Hall effect in a nonmagnetic layer are deflected in opposite directions by the magnetization of the adjacent magnetic layer. Previously, this new effect was demonstrated in two-layer structures consisting of a nonmagnetic and a magnetic layer. But by adding another magnetic layer, the researchers achieved a great potential advantage for memories: the ability to distinguish between not just two, but four magnetic states. Other types of magnetoresistance effects are only sensitive to the relative orientation of the magnetizations (parallel or antiparallel), although it’s possible to have four distinct magnetic states. Because the new effect is sensitive to the magnetization direction of individual layers, it can distinguish between all four states.The researchers then demonstrated four distinct resistance levels corresponding to the four different magnetic states in their three-layer device. They showed that the four resistance levels can be read out by a simple electric measurement, paving the way for the development of an all-electrical multi-bit-per-cell memory device.The researchers expect that it will be possible to scale up this memory device to higher bit densities by adding more layers, which could realistically enable eight different magnetization states, each with its own unique resistance level. In the future, the researchers also plan to look for materials that exhibit a larger unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance effect, which would further enhance the performance of these memory devices. (Left) With a single ferromagnetic layer, the system has two resistance levels. (Right) Adding another ferromagnet to the system creates four levels of resistance, corresponding to the four different magnetic states indicated by the arrows. Credit: Avci et al. ©2017 American Institute of Physics (Phys.org)—In 2015, scientists discovered a new magnetoresistance effect—that is, a new way in which magnetization affects a material’s electric resistance—but hadn’t yet found a promising application for the discovery, beyond the existing technologies. Now in a new paper, the same researchers have demonstrated that the effect can be used to design memories with four distinct stable magnetic states, allowing the memories to store four bits of information in a single magnetic structure. More information: Can Onur Avci et al. “A multi-state memory device based on the unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance.” Applied Physics Letters. DOI: 10.1063/1.4983784ABSTRACTWe report on a memory device concept based on the recently discovered unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance (USMR), which can store multiple bits of information in a single ferromagnetic heterostructure. We show that the USMR with possible contribution of Joule heating-driven magnetothermal effects in ferromagnet/normal metal/ferromagnet (FM/NM/FM) trilayers gives rise to four different 2nd harmonic resistance levels corresponding to four magnetization states (⇉⇉, ⇄⇄, ⇆⇆, ⇇⇇) in which the system can be found. Combined with the possibility of controlling the individual FMs by spin-orbit torques, we propose that it is possible to build an all-electrical lateral two-terminal multi-bit-per-cell memory device. © 2017 Phys.org Smart multi-layered magnetic material acts as an electric switchcenter_img Journal information: Applied Physics Letters Citation: New magnetoresistance effect leads to four-state memory device (2017, June 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-06-magnetoresistance-effect-four-state-memory-device.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. 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DMK postpones fast over Jallikattu

first_imgIn an expression of faith in the assertion of Union Minister Pon Radhakrihnan that permission will be secured to hold bull taming sport ‘Jallikattu’ in Tamil Nadu, DMK on Friday postponed its proposed hunger strike over the issue.“I feel that the proposed hunger strike (to seek nod for Jallikattu) at Alanganallur (Madurai) on December 28 to be led by party treasurer M K Stalin can be postponed considering the letter of Union Minister Pon Radhakrishnan (that permission would be obtained to hold the event),” Karunanidhi said in a release here. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeRadhakrishnan had said on Thursday, replying to Karunanidhi’s letter to him over the issue, “I am confident that we will be getting permission to hold Jallikattu on Pongal day based on the talks held for the past one month… Our efforts have the support of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.” Citing the assurance, the DMK chief also appealed to pro-Jallikattu groups who had sought his party’s support, “to accept the postponement of the protest by accepting the confidence expressed by Union Minister Pon Radhakrishnan.” An annual affair in southern parts of rural Tamil Nadu, it has socio-economic and cultural dimensions to it.last_img read more